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What problems can tooth implantation solve?

Single tooth missing. In this case there is no need to remove the neighbor teeth nerves and turn-process these neighbor teeth for tooth crown attachment
A few teeth missing in a row. Tooth implantation provides a possibility to place a stationary dental prosthesis instead of a removable dental prosthesis.
All teeth missing

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Tooth Implantation History

In 1965 professor Ingvar Branemark was a head of research group at the University of Goteborg (Sweden) and his studies finally resulted in osteo-integration discovery (titanium prosthesis integration into tissue). Branemarks researches were aimed at jaw bone healing and regeneration after injury. The most remarkable thing about this is that osteo-integration phenomenon was discovered accidentally.

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Veneers in preventive dentistry

Nowadays beautiful teeth have become an indispensable part of a successful person.
Interest in beautiful teeth has probably come to Russia from abroad, where snow-white even teeth have become not just a symbol of health, but the embodiment of success.


There are usually several ways of solving the clinical situation in every patient's oral cavity. In many cases when restoring front teeth ceramic veneers may become a good alternative for composite restoration or ceramic crowns. Placing a thin ceramic facet on the vestibular surface of the front teeth is a widely-spread procedure which has already been performed for more than 30 years. The art of creating dental veneers has been developing and has lead to the creation of the modern generation of materials which can be divided into two categories:

  1. Direct restoration with composite materials in the oral cavity.
  2. Veneers produced in the laboratory way with application of computed dental milling (Zerech).

Originally correction of the front teeth was performed with the help of veneers. Later they started to be used for up to the second premolar
Veneers can be produced for both intact teeth and the teeth treated from complicated caries.

Most veneers are made in the area of the front teeth, that is why saving contact points on the tooth or their modeling on the veneer depends on the clinical situation and is one of the most important stages in restoration technique.

While modeling contact points "adhesion" to the adjacent tooth can't be allowed not to damage its physiological mobility.
It is considered that ideally a tooth, and, consequently, a veneer, should have 3 colour hues: "neck-body-edge of the tooth".
This difference in colour is achieved with not only the mechanic selection of three different colours, but individually selected thickness of the material layers.


It should be underlined that the thickness of the veneer made by direct method differs from the thickness of the veneer produced in a dental laboratory. The minimal thickness of the veneer produced in the laboratory way is about 0.5 mm in the neck area, 1.0 mm in the central part, 1.3-1.5 mm on the cutting edge.

The thickness of the veneer produced by the direct method much depends on the change of the tooth colour, i.e. the darker the tooth is the thicker the veneer should be. Consequently, the depth of hard dental tissues preparation is defined by the doctor individually for each patient.

Indications for veneers:

Veneers are usually used for the tooth colour and form correction.

1. The so-called tetracycline teeth.


2. Teeth treated with the method of the full pulp extraction with breaking the technology, which may lead to the tooth colouring in pink (after filling the canals with resorcin-formalin paste) or yellow (iodoform containing paste); change of the tooth colour may also occur after the tooth trauma. It should be noted that basically the tooth crown shouldn't change its colouring if certain rules are followed during root canal treatment and after it before permanent filling installation.


3. Inborn defects of teeth (so-called hypoplasias).
4. Amelogenesis imperfecta is the next reason for the tooth colour change.
5. Fluorosis.
6. Average or severe enamel erosion that is when erosion takes a half or more than a half of the tooth vestibular surface.
7. Cuneate defects with extensive lesions of hard tissues not only in the depth but in the area.
8. Pathological abrasiveness of the hard tissues.
9. Carious cavities of the 3rd class when defects are located on medial and lateral surface and cover substantial area.
10. Enamel demineralization being a consequence of orthodontic treatment after taking off bracket locks.
11. Overcrowded upper central incisors. Anomaly of the teeth form. Turn of the tooth along the axis.
12. Correction of diastemas and tremas.


Finally, speaking of indications it should be born in mind that producing a veneer by direct method is much cheaper than a ceramic-metal crown. The advantage of a veneer made by direct method is also in the fact that it is produced on the very day of application to the clinic which is convenient for a patient. This work can be referred to emergency aid in therapeutic dentistry.

The choice of the material for a veneer is a very important stage of work. The preference should be given to hybrid composite materials as they are less than other materials are prone to abrasion, easily polished, most colour fast, and, as a rule, have a wide range of colour palette. Wonderful results can be achieved using microfil composite materials, as well as compomers having become widely-spread recently; however, they should be used only when we are not going to lengthen the tooth with the help of a veneer.

At present two techniques of teeth preparation for veneers are used in clinics. Which one to choose depends on the purpose we want to achieve. And here a very important question should be answered: whether we need to lengthen the tooth on its cutting edge?


If there is no need to lengthen the tooth, we usually chose the technique according to which we prepare only the vestibular surface of the tooth crown.

After preparation the vestibular surface should be slightly convex, which is to a large extent determined by the size and thickness of the tooth itself. If the thickness allows it we form a small retentional ledge by the cutting edge.

Only in case we need to lengthen the tooth crown we choose the technique according to which we prepare the vestibular surface up to the cutting edge and additionally prepare 1/3 of the oral surface of the tooth. In this case veneer modeling should be started with the oral surface.


For better aesthetic perception while the veneer modeling in the area of approximal surfaces lighter hues of material may be used, maybe even a transparent layer.
Anatomic features characteristic of each group of teeth are restored both directly at the moment of modeling and during the final processing with burs.

Front teeth groups are rounded for women, more direct angles are left for men. Taking into account he fact that the hard dental tissues during restoration kind of "dry out" and experience extra stress from acid treatment, the final assessment of the work should be performed several days later as the aesthetic parameters may improve in that period.

And the last but not the least. The patient should be notified of the necessity of careful daily hygiene of the oral cavity, which will save shining of the veneer surface. Once in half a year a visit to the dentist is required for possible correction of the tooth restoration and professional polishing of the veneer.